What is a cell?
Test your knowledge of the cell by answering the following questions, and if you don't know the answers then read the text below to find out.
1. The fluid within a cell is called the __________.
2. Nucleoplasm is the fluid found within the _________.
3. _______ synthesise proteins and enzymes.
4. DNA is found within the ________.
5. DNA stands for _______________ _____.
6. The intracellular structures involved in energy production are called ________________.
7. The _________ apparatus synthesises carbohydrates and vacuoles.
8. The intracellular structures involved in cleaning up cellular debris are called ___________.
What is a cell?
A cell is composed of a selectively permeable plasma membrane filled with cytoplasm, and containing several intracellular structures. The cytoplasm is a watery solution of organic molecules, gasses and minerals, and is the site of chemical reactions within the cell.
The intracellular structures include the :
- ribosomes - tiny structures of protein and RNA that are the sites of protein and enzyme synthesis,
- mitochondrion - sites of energy production,
- lyosomes - containing digestive enzymes that destroy cellular debris and bacteria,
- centrosome - dense areas of cytoplasm containing centrioles,
- centrioles - involved in cell division,
- endoplasmic reticulum - which synthesizes secretory proteins, lipids and carbohydrates, and provides a passageway for the transport of materials within the cell,
- golgi apparatus - which synthesises and transports carbohydrates, and
- vacuoles - which containing waste material in the cell.
Also found within the cytoplasm is the nucleus, which is the control centre of the cell. Filled with nucleoplasm within a selectively porous nuclear membrane, the nucleus contains the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and chromatin, which together form chromosomes during mitosis.
Reference : Human Physiology - Silverthorn (Amazon link)
In this section we've added a few alternative study aids to help you along.
- Articles - Here you'll find a range of short articles on basic anatomy and physiology topics, complete with a few 'test yourself' questions for each one.
- Images and pdf's - Just in case you get tired of looking at the screen we've provided images and pdf files that you can print out and use for 'off-line' practice.
- Word Roots - When you learn the word roots, prefixes and suffixes contained within anatomical and medical terms, you can often work out what they mean. This can be a useful skill as you progress in your studies, so we've provided a dictionary to help you!
- Games - Finally in the resources section, we've added some simple games to make anatomy and physiology practice a little bit more fun.